Developed in 1945 as a modernization of the T30 heavy tank. T34 Heavy Tank – amerykański czołg zaprojektowany pod koniec II wojny światowej. [129] [25] Koshkin's team completed two prototype T-34s in January 1940. They recommend replacing it with a hydraulic or simply manual system.[49]. The floor under the T-34's turret was made up of ammunition stored in small metal boxes, covered by a rubber mat. [157], A T-34-85 tank monument in the East German city of Karl-Marx-Stadt (Chemnitz) became the target of a 1980 bomb-attack that inflicted minor damage on the vehicle and blew out nearby windows. When earth got stuck between the road wheels, the caterpillar, especially during a turn – strained to such an extent that the pins and tracks themselves couldn't hold out.[85]. It was equipped with a 76.2mm gun which could fire high explosive armor-piercing shells, a reliable diesel engine, and the toughest possible armor. No bureaucrat would approve production of the new gun, but Gorky and KhPZ started producing it anyway; official permission came from the State Defense Committee only after troops praised the weapon's performance in combat against the Germans. The T-34-85 was called pitkäputkinen Sotka ("long-barreled Sotka").[179]. All T-34-85 models are externally very similar. Some Russian historians use different names: they refer to the first T-34 as the T-34 Model 1939 instead of 1940, all T-34s with the original turret and F-34 gun as Model 1941 instead of Models 1941 and 1942, and the hexagonal-turret T-34 as Model 1942 instead of 1943. Goncharenko's T-34-85 (the first Soviet tank to enter Prague during the liberation of Czechoslovakia in May 1945), but actually bore an IS-2M heavy tank. Due to all three factors, there are hundreds of surviving T-34s. US engineering analysis and testing concluded that the T-34 85 could penetrate 4.1 inches at 1000 yards, performing similarly to the HVAP rounds of the M41. [58] Ground trials by employees of NIBT Polygon in May 1943 reported that the KwK 36 88 mm gun could pierce the T-34 frontal hull from 1,500 meters at 90 degrees and cause a disastrous burst effect inside the tank. To many in Prague, the tank was also a reminder of the Soviet invasion which ended the Prague Spring of 1968. By the war's end in 1945, the versatile and cost-effective T-34 had replaced many light and heavy tanks in service, and accounted for the majority of Soviet tank production. The vehicle was deemed too heavy and no production orders were placed. No need to register, buy now! Japanese forces were overwhelmed, though some put up resistance. Between 150 and 200 of these tanks were built before the end of the war. The F-32 was being tined to the new KV heavy tank and was achieving much better anti-armour performance than the tank T-34 Model 1940s L-11, due to its longer barrel. Like the Soviet forces themselves, the Polish and Czechoslovak tank crews were sent into action quickly with little training, and suffered high casualties. Both tanks were the backbone of the armoured units in their respective armies, both nations distributed these tanks to their allies, who also used them as the mainstay of their own armoured formations, and both were upgraded extensively and fitted with more powerful guns. By 1937–38, track design had improved and the designers considered it a waste of space, weight, and maintenance resources, despite the road speed advantage. Captured enemy designs, experimental types, and Lend-Lease tanks are also included in … In 2018, there were nine countries that maintained T-34s in the inventories of their national armed forces: Cuba, Yemen, the Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Namibia, North Korea, Laos, and Vietnam. However, the battles in the summer of 1943 demonstrated that the 76.2 mm gun of the T-34 was no longer as effective as it was in 1941. Soviet Union (1940) Medium tank – 35,467 built A landmark in tank history. The workers and machinery from Leningrad's Voroshilov Tank Factory N.174 were incorporated into the Ural Factory and the new Omsk Factory N.174. The examinations, performed at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, highlighted these early faults, which were in turn acknowledged in a 1942 Soviet report on the results of the testing: The Christie's suspension was tested a long time ago by the Americans and unconditionally rejected. [41], The testing at Aberdeen revealed other problems as well. [140], Over a hundred Cuban T-34-85s and their respective crews remained in Angola as of the mid 1980s. [188] The tank had been captured and used by retreating German troops, who dumped it in the swamp when it ran out of fuel. Neither the T-34 nor the M4 was a match for Germany's heavier tanks, the Panther (technically a medium tank) or the Tiger I; the Soviets used the IS-2 heavy tank and the U.S. used the M26 Pershing as the heavy tanks of their forces instead.[46]. Its evolutionary development led directly to the T-54/55 series of tanks, built until 1981 and still operational today. 14 "The incredible T-34 tank." These were designated by the Germans as Panzerkampfwagen T-34 747(r). Also added were an improved engine air filter and a new clutch mated to an improved and more reliable five-speed transmission. Despite China's entry into the conflict in the following month, no major armour deployments were carried out by them, as the Chinese focus was on massed infantry attacks rather than large-scale armour assaults. The name of the T-34's engine (V-2; B-2 in Russian) is a model name, and has nothing to do with its number of cylinders. Krivosheev & Erickson 1997:252, table 95. [7][8] "As early as July 1941, OKW chief Alfred Jodl noted in his war diary the surprise at this new and thus unknown wunder-armament being unleashed against the German assault divisions. If you fired it after that, the barrel would open up at the end like the petals of a flower", destroying the barrel. [87], During the Korean war the Americans captured a North Korean T-34 85, evaluating its performance. [49] Earlier models of the T-34, until the Model 1942, had cast turrets whose armour was softer than that of the other parts of the tank, and offered poor resistance even to 37 mm anti-aircraft shells. The heavily sloped armour design made the tank better protected than the armour thickness alone would indicate. [5], In 1945, encounters with heavy German tanks and tank destroyers such as the Tiger II and Jagdtiger lead to a new project to counter these new threats. The French Musée des Blindés at Saumur holds two T-34s, including one in full working condition that is displayed in action at its summer "Carrousel" live tank exhibition. For those that believe that this is the Soviet T-34 (notice the dash in the name) "The final variation of the T29 concept, the Heavy Tank T34, mounted a 120 mm gun based upon the then-current 120mm M1 anti-aircraft gun" -Wikipedia The Sixth Army was surrounded, and eventually surrendered in February 1943, a campaign widely regarded as the turning point of the war on the Eastern Front. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.; See also. New methods were developed for automated welding and hardening the armour plate, including innovations by Prof. Evgeny Paton. A cut out of a Russian (USSR) T34 / 76 Heavy Tank, Used extensively by Soviet forces during WW2 & other Warsaw Pact armies later War and peace show, England. The Finnish tanks were captured directly from the Soviets or purchased from Germany's captured stocks. The complaints of the crews urged the design group led by Alexander Morozov to switch in August 1942[78] to using two hatches in the turret. [28], Production of this first T-34 series – the Model 1940 – totalled only about 400,[31] before production was switched to the Model 1941, with the F-34 gun, 9-RS radio set (also installed on the SU-100), and even thicker armour. Czechoslovak-produced T-34-85s were used by Egypt in the Arab-Israeli Wars of 1956 and 1967 in the Sinai Peninsula. It used the coil-spring Christie suspension of the earlier BT-series tanks, using a "slack track" tread system with a rear-mounted drive sprocket and no system of return rollers for the upper run of track, but dispensed with the heavy and ineffective convertible drive. Although the IJA Type 95 Ha-Go light tanks had diesel engines,[19] the Red Army's T-26 and BT tanks used petrol engines which, while common in tank designs of the time, often burst into flames when hit by IJA tank-killer teams[20] using Molotov cocktails. [185] In Sydney Pollack's 1969 movie Castle Keep, barely modified T-34-85 tanks were used as German tanks. The Model 1943 (confusingly also introduced in 1942) had yet more armour, as well as increased fuel capacity and more ammunition storage. The Germans’ standard anti-tank guns, the 37-millimeter Kwk36 and the 50-millimeter Kwk 38, couldn’t put a dent in the Soviet tank with a shot to its front. Russian T34 tank, facing viewer, drivern by two teenage women in turret. [127] Cuban crewmen instructed FAPLA personnel in their operation; other FAPLA drivers and gunners accompanied Cuban crews in an apprentice role. In 1956, they were used as regular tanks to support Egyptian infantry, the tank was still in use by the 1973 October war. [127] In 1975, the Soviet Union shipped eighty T-34-85s to Angola as part of its support for the ongoing Cuban military intervention there. T-34 variants were widely exported after World War II, and as recently as 2018 more than 130 were still in service. According to the tank’s instruments, it had travelled for 741 km, but the level of wear on the engine was minimal. An evaluation of the tank was conducted by the USA which found that the sloped armour of the T-34 was desirable for deflecting shells. Despite these deficiencies, the T-34's armour proved problematic for the Germans in the initial stages of the war on the Eastern Front. [citation needed], Resistance from the military command and concerns about high production cost were finally overcome by anxieties about the poor performance of Soviet tanks in the Winter War in Finland, and the effectiveness of German tanks during the Battle of France. [148] Four later entered service with the new Namibian Army. The first production machines were those of the ‘148’ chassis numbers, starting with ‘148-11’. The F-34 76.2 mm (3 in) gun, fitted on the vast majority of T-34s produced through to the beginning of 1944, was able to penetrate any early German tank's armour at normal combat ranges. As a result, T-34 platoons lost the greater firepower of three independently operating tanks. By 1943, there were 43 factories producing just two types of tanks – the T-34 and the heavier KV. [83] The earlier transmissions were troublesome, and some tanks went into battle with a spare transmission cabled onto the engine compartment deck.[84]. There are a total of [ 67 ] WW2 Soviet Tanks (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. The Heavy Tank T29 and Heavy Tank T34 were American heavy tanks projects started in March 1944 to counter the appearance of the German Tiger II heavy tank. Some still may serve in a second-line capacity in a number of Third World militaries, while others may find use in a civilian capacity, primarily in film-making. In September 1986, Cuban president Fidel Castro complained to General Konstantin Kurochkin, head of the Soviet military delegation to Angola, that his men could no longer be expected to fight South African armour with T-34s of "World War II vintage"; Castro insisted that the Soviets furbish the Cuban forces with a larger quantity of T-55s. Guards Tank. [67], The Germans also noted that the T-34 was very slow to find and engage targets, while their own tanks could typically get off three rounds for every one fired by the T-34. [141] By 1987 Castro's request appeared to have been granted, as Cuban tank battalions were able to deploy substantial numbers of T-54Bs, T-55s, and T-62s; the T-34-85 was no longer in service. [94] The inability to penetrate the T-34's armour led to the Germans' standard anti-tank gun, the 37 mm PaK 36, being dubbed the Panzeranklopfgerät ("tank door knocker") because the PaK 36 crew simply revealed their presence and wasted their shells without damaging the T-34's armour. Standard practice when moving the T-34-85 cross-country in non-combat situations was to fully elevate the gun, or reverse the turret. [24], Valuable lessons from Lake Khasan and Khalkhin Gol regarding armour protection, mobility, quality welding, and main guns were incorporated into the new T-34 tank, which represented a substantial improvement over the BT and T-26 tanks in all four areas. The campaign featured the largest tank battles in history. During the Battle of Lake Khasan in July 1938 and the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939, an undeclared border war with Japan on the frontier with occupied Manchuria, the Soviets deployed numerous tanks against the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). The vehicle was deemed too heavy and no production orders were placed. Badly damaged tanks were either dug in as pillboxes or were used for testing and training purposes. [192], This article is about the Soviet medium tank. The new tank had a turret design based on the T-34-85's, but featured a new hull with torsion-bar suspension and transversely mounted engine; it had a lower profile than the T-34-85 and was simpler to manufacture. Many are in private ownership, and demilitarised working tanks change hands for U.S. $20,000–40,000. Protective coatings used to prevent wear of components were deemed "most effective". Koshkin chose the name after the year 1934, when he began to formulate his ideas about the new tank, and to commemorate that year's decree expanding the armoured force and appointing Sergo Ordzhonikidze to head tank production. [34] The Kirovsky Factory, evacuated just weeks before the Germans surrounded Leningrad, moved with the Kharkov Diesel Factory to the Stalin Tractor Factory in Chelyabinsk, soon to be nicknamed Tankograd ("Tank City"). The Soviets ultimately built over 80,000 T-34s of all variants, allowing steadily greater numbers to be fielded despite the loss of tens of thousands in combat against the German Wehrmacht. It was evolved from the T29 Heavy Tank and T30 Heavy Tank in 1945, sporting a 120 mm (4.72 in) modified anti-aircraft gun. [154], In 1944, pre-war development of a more advanced T-34 tank was resumed, leading to the T-44. The Japanese emperor transmitted a surrender order on 14 August, but the Kwangtung Army was not given a formal cease-fire until 17 August. [123] After October 1950, KPA armour was rarely encountered. This made the turret, overall, a bigger target (due to the three-man crew and bigger gun), but more resistant to enemy fire. Other key factors diminishing the initial impact of T-34s on the battlefield were the poor state of leadership, tank tactics, initial lack of radios in tanks, and crew training; these factors were partially consequences of Stalin's purge of the Soviet officer corps in 1937, reducing the army's efficiency and morale. [50] The armour was heat-treated in order to prevent penetration by armour-piercing shells, but this also caused it to be structurally weak, resulting in strikes by high explosive shells causing spalling. The extremely versatile T 34-85 is one of the best mediums at Tier 6. [30] The initial T-34 version had a powerful 76.2 mm gun, and is often called the T-34/76 (originally a World War II German designation, never used by the Red Army). [144] As part of this effort, SWAPO diplomatic representatives in Europe approached the German Democratic Republic with a request for ten T-34 tanks, which were delivered. However, to balance these abilities the T34's cannon was given an increase in aiming time and also given a RoF of 4. [109] It was still not enough to match the Tiger, as a Tiger could destroy the T-34 from a distance of 1,500 to 2,000 meters,[110] but it was a noticeable improvement. The vehicle was equipped with the 120 mm T53 gun and the new Continental AV-1790 engine. [178] The Finns referred to the T-34 as the Sotka after the common goldeneye, because the side silhouette of the tank resembled a swimming waterfowl. The bomber, Josef Kneifel, was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bautzen, but was released after a deal with the West German government in 1987. Despite the advantages of the use of diesel, the good contours of the tanks, thick armor, good and reliable armaments, the successful design of the tracks etc., Russian tanks are significantly inferior to American tanks in their simplicity of driving, manoeuvrability, the strength of firing (reference to muzzle velocity), speed, the reliability of mechanical construction and the ease of keeping them running. Find the perfect russian tank t34 tank stock photo. In one wartime account, a single T-34 came under heavy fire upon encountering one of the most common German anti-tank guns at that stage of the war: "Remarkably enough, one determined 37 mm gun crew reported firing 23 times against a single T-34 tank, only managing to jam the tank’s turret ring. Although during decades of service time there are plenty of modifications that make some visual differences between original T-34-85 and the Chinese T-34-85, and Factory 617 had the ability to produce every single part of T-34-85, there was no single T-34-85 that actually produced in China. The prototype T-43's turret design was hurriedly adopted by Vyacheslav Kerichev at the Krasnoye Sormovo Factory to fit the T-34. Soviet Tank T-34 76 model 1940 abandoned by the Red Army. As they approached Cassinga they were strafed by South African aircraft, which destroyed most of the BTR-152s and three of the T-34-85s; a fourth T-34-85 was disabled by an anti-tank mine buried in the road. [49], On January 29th 1945, the State Defense Committee approved a decree that extended the service life guarantee of the T-34's V-2-34 engine from 200 hours to 250 hours. The image is available for download in high resolution quality up to 4616x3077. Many of the Т-34-85s were enhanced with Finnish or Western equipment, such as improved optics.[150]. These machines were mainly identifiable from other … [93] In another incident, a single Soviet T-34 was hit more than 30 times by a battalion-sized contingent of German 37mm and 50mm anti-tank guns, yet survived intact and drove back to its own lines a few hours later. This pressure was brought to bear by the developer of the KV-1 tank which was in competition with the T-34. When firing APCR shells, it could pierce 92 mm at 500 m and 60 mm of armour at 1000 m.[63] The best German tanks of 1941, the Panzer III and Panzer IV, had no more than 50 or 60 mm of flat frontal armour. [64] However by 1942 the Germans had increased the hull armour on the Panzer IV to 80mm which provided good protection at normal combat distances. The T-26 was slow-moving, designed to keep pace with infantry on the ground. 112, first using the D-5T 85 mm gun. [74][more specific citation needed], The original 76mm armed T-34 suffered from the unsatisfactory ergonomic layout of its crew compartment compared to the later 85mm variant. A tank platoon would seldom be capable of engaging three separate targets but would tend to focus on a single target selected by the platoon leader. Egypt went on to build the T-34-100, a local and unique conversion that was made up of a Soviet BS-3 100 mm heavy field-artillery gun mounted within a heavily modified turret, as well as the T-34-122 mounting the D-30 gun. Nicknamed pirozhok (stuffed bun) because of its characteristic shape, it was heavy and hard to open. Individual tank commanders lacked situational awareness due to the poor provision of vision devices and preoccupation with gunnery duties. In addition, its pneumatic engine starting system, fed from a compressed air cylinder mounted inside the tank's bow, remained reliable even in the coldest conditions. [citation needed]. The USSR donated two combat-used Model 1941 T-34s to the United States for testing purposes in late 1942. It had an L-10 76.2 mm (3 in) gun, and the same Model V-2-34 diesel. [12], The T-34 had well-sloped armour, a relatively powerful engine and wide tracks. The resulting new tank, the T-34-85, was seen as a compromise between advocates for the T-43 and others who wanted to continue to build as many 76 mm-armed T-34s as possible without interruption. In comparison with the T-34-85 program, the Germans instead chose an upgrade path based on the introduction of completely new, expensive, heavier, and more complex tanks, greatly slowing the growth of their tank production and aiding the Soviets in maintaining a substantial numerical superiority in tanks. [57][further explanation needed] This meant that the T-34 would have to resort to using tungsten rounds or firing on the weaker sides of the Panther to destroy it. The T34 Heavy Tank was an American design for a heavy tank. The T-34 was essential in resisting the German summer offensive in 1942, and executing the double encirclement manoeuver that cut off the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad in December 1942. Both were an approximately even match for the standard German medium tank, the Panzer IV, though each of these three tanks had particular advantages and weaknesses compared with the other two. The Germans noted the T-34 was very slow to find and engage targets while the Panzers could typically get off three rounds for every one fired by the T-34. The 400 alpha is the most out of all tier 8 heavy tanks and the penetration is a staggering 248mm for … Just after midnight on 9 August 1945, though the terrain was believed by the Japanese to be impassable by armoured formations, the Soviet Union invaded Japanese-occupied Manchuria. Limited rubber supplies led to the adoption of all-steel, internally sprung road wheels, and a new clutch was added to an improved five-speed transmission and engine, improving reliability. : Stackpole Books.ISBN 0-8117-1493-4.; Zaloga, Steven J., James Grandsen (1984).Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two, London: Arms and Armour Press. The Model 1942 featured increased armour on the turret and many simplified components. [24] Some drivetrain shortcomings were identified and corrected. Examples of this tank are in the collections of most significant military museums, and hundreds more serve as war memorials. T-34 byl sovětský střední tank vyvinutý na přelomu 30. a 40. let 20. století, který měl zásadní a trvalý dopad na konstrukci tanků. The Japanese tanks remaining to face them were all held in the rear and not used in combat; the Japanese had weak support from IJAAF forces, engineering, and communications. The prototype tank, designated A-20, was specified with 20 mm (0.8 in) of armour, a 45 mm (1.77 in) gun, and the new Model V-2-34 engine, using less-flammable diesel fuel in a V12 configuration designed by Konstantin Chelpan. The Soviet Army also began to add the IS "Josef Stalin" heavy tank to the mix beginning in 1943 for a truly potent "one-two" punch. Disponoval bezprecedentní kombinací palebné síly, mobility, ochrany a robustnosti. [12] With 44,900 lost during the war, it also suffered the most tank losses ever. Soviet tank crews struggled at longer ranges with the additional frontal armour applied to the later variants of the Panzer III and Panzer IV, and were unable to penetrate the frontal armour of the new German Panther or Tiger I tank at standard combat ranges without tungsten rounds, and had to rely on tactical skill through flanking maneuvers and combined arms.[105]. [71] When firing on the frontal armour of the Panther at an angle of 30 degrees sidewards, the T-34-85 could not penetrate its turret at 500 m (550 yd). [7][8], "The museum where the Army's tanks never die, they just get repainted (PHOTOS)", American armored fighting vehicle production during World War II, Prototype armoured fighting vehicles of World War II,, Abandoned military projects of the United States, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 6 (driver, gunner, loader, assistant loader, commander, assistant driver), hull front 102–203 mm (4.0–8.0 in) maximum, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 04:18. The armour thickness alone would indicate were transported to a museum in Ingolstadt fighting.. Hexagonal turret proved a psychological shock to German requirements thousands of T-34s, keeping up the supply of –. To play it ground with it in riots against police forces lack of data at higher combat ranges Alfred... 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